Wednesday, July 15, 2020
How to Handle Unresolved Conflict at Family Gatherings Stress Management Relationship Stress Print How to Handle Unresolved Conflict at Family Gatherings By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated on October 15, 2019 Rob Lewine/Creative RF/Getty Images More in Stress Management Relationship Stress Effects on Health Management Techniques Situational Stress Job Stress Household Stress While family relationships can bring support, joy, and other wonderful benefits into our lives, these relationships can also bring stress, particularly when theres unresolved conflict. Because its more difficult to let go of conflicted relationships with family than it would be if these relationships were mere friendships, unresolved conflicts with family members can be particularly painful. We have certain expectations of trust and closeness toward family members, and it can be more than merely disappointing to realize that this may not be possible with all family members. The Stress of Unresolved Family Disputes Unresolved family conflicts bring additional stress at family gatherings in particular. Past unresolved conflicts can become the elephant in the room, felt by everyone, but not directly addressed in the situation. This can be stressful for everyone before and during the family gatherings, sometimes leaving a lasting sense of stress afterward as well. Without a heartfelt discussion, an apology or another form of resolution, the trust on both sides is compromised, and may not know what to expect from this person in the future. (For example, that one time your mother-in-law criticized your cooking may come up in your mind every time she comes for a visit, and others may sense your tension.) This leads many people to assume the worst when they interpret each others behavior in the present and future interactions rather than giving the benefit of the doubt like most of us do with people we trust. Also, references or reminders of past conflicts can sting and create new pain. Once a conflict has gone on a while, even if both parties move on and remain polite, the feelings of pain and mistrust are usually lingering under the surface, and are difficult to resolve: bringing up old hurts in an effort to resolve them can often backfire, as the other party may feel attacked; avoiding the issue altogether but holding onto resentment can poison feelings in the present. What You Can Do to Ease Conflict So what do you do at a family gathering when theres someone there with whom youve had an unresolved conflict? Just be polite. Contrary to how many people feel, a family gathering is not the time to rehash old conflicts, as such conversations often get messy before they get resolved â" if they get resolved. Again, be polite, redirect conversations that get into areas that may cause conflict, and try to avoid the person as much as you politely can. Even if everyone else fails to follow this advice, if you are able to focus on handling your end of the conflict in a peaceful way, you can go a long way in minimizing battles at family gatherings and promoting peace. You may be surprised by how much of a difference this can make in the overall feel of your family get-togethers, and in your personal feelings and stress level leading up to them. In future dealings with this person, you can take one of three paths: Try to resolve the conflict. At a time when all the family isnt gathered, ask the person if theyd like to discuss and resolve what happened in the past. If (and only if) you and the other person seem to want to resolve things and are open to seeing one anothers point of view, this could be a constructive idea. Seeing where each of you may have misunderstood the other or behaved in a way you would change if you could, offering sincere apologies, and in other ways resolving the conflict can heal the relationship for the future.Forgive and forget. If it looks like such a civil meeting of the minds is unlikely, dont push it. Its probably a good idea to try to forgive the other person and let it go. Forgiving doesnt mean opening yourself up to feel wronged again; it only means that you let go of your feelings of resentment and anger. You can be careful in what you expect from this person in the future without actively harboring resentment, and youll be the one to benefit the most. Minimi ze contact or cut the person out of your life. If what the other person did was abusive and theres absolutely no remorse or reason to expect things to be different in the future, you can severely limit your dealings with this person, or cut off contact altogether. This is normally a last-resort choice, but in cases of abuse, its sometimes a necessary one to make for your own emotional health.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Freud and Faulkner A psychoanalytic Reading of Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ Abstract Undoubtedly Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis. He was an influential thinker of the early twentieth century who elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system and the structural investigation of which is the proper province of psychology. Freud articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, infantile sexuality and repression and he proposed tripartite account of the mind Ã¢â¬Ës structure, all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. Freudian approach can beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦in this stage where girls develop Ã¢â¬Å"penis envyÃ¢â¬ , the solution is to obtain the fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s penis (sexual desire) through identifying with the mother and mimicking her in order to replace her. Emily fails to resolve the conflict in the phallic stage because she was unable to identify with the same-sex pa rent. We can only hypothesize that the mother may have abandoned her or died during this time so that there was no same-sex parent to identify with. Failure to identify with the mother led to the failure of successfully obtaining the penis, and the failure to understand through psychosexual competition with the mother for the father, that all women do not and cannot possess a penis. Emily then begets a nonnegotiable necessity to have a phallic figure around in her life, and if she canÃ¢â¬â¢t, a possession of the Ã¢â¬Å"penisÃ¢â¬ herself. EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s submissiveness to letting her father control her romantic life can be interpreted as the need to have her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s phallic figure around but when her father died, the phallic figure was Ã¢â¬Å"castratedÃ¢â¬ from her. The realization of the temporality of this kind of possession may have triggered the need to permanently have control over the possession of the penis in the form of a phallic figure. This may explain the p oisoning of Homer, a Ã¢â¬Å"big, dark, ready man, with a big voiceÃ¢â¬ , in the ultimate attempt to obtain the Ã¢â¬Å"penisÃ¢â¬ and finally, however perversely, resolve the penis envy. Emily herself is transformedÃ¢â¬âand tragicallyÃ¢â¬â into somewhat of aShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Poem Southern Gothic 1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessetting in Southern Gothic writing styles. (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connell 63) Southern Gothic writing elements consist of Ã¢â¬Å"horror, romance and psychological and domestic dramasÃ¢â¬ (63). The setting of Southern Gothic was always dingy and dark which explains the tone of most southern states at this time. Southern Gothic writing styles were known to be grotesque, violent and gloomy with dark psychological twists that were to be carried on into the 20th century. There can also be other ways to exercise Southern Gothic stylesRead MoreEssay on Hawthorne To Faulkner: The Evolution Of The Short Story1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for Em ilyÃ¢â¬ use a moral to endorse particular ideals or values. Through their characters examination and evaluation of one another, the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s lesson is brought forth. The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ style of preaching morals is reminiscent of the fables of Aesop and the religious parables of the Old and New Testament. The reader is faced with a life lesson after reading HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman Brown:Ã¢â¬ you cannot judge other people. A similar moral is presented in FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for Emily.Ã¢â¬ The useRead MoreCharacter Comparison for The Fall of the House of Usher and A Rose for Emily1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPoe and Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ written by William Faulkner, we see common themes of a gothic genre filled with rhetorical twists and turns. The dynamics in each work are elaborately depicted through the eyes of two narrators who are watching these pieces unfold. Many similar themes experienced in both Poe and FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s work deal with the ideology of death and preservation in regard to the oneÃ¢â¬â¢s loved and lovers. Roderick Usher is the main character in Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of UsherÃ¢â¬ and Emily GriersonRead MoreCompare A P And A Rose For Emily1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAP + A Rose for Emily AP by John Updike and A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner are two short stories which reveal to be different, odd and even bizarre in several aspects; conversely, on the other hand, they are very similar. One similarity for John Updike, William Faulkner and many other authors, is being that they follow the three-act structure, which helps to write their story more effectively. Furthermore, in analyzing AP and A Rose for Emily, we see that both share an Ã¢â¬Å"overarchingÃ¢â¬ theme;Read MoreMiss Emily and Her Rose 682 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMiss Emily is a mysterious character in Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ by William Faulkner. She is the protagonist in this work. Emily used to be a vibrant and hopeful young woman, but something has changed with her. She had plenty of potential suitors, but her father rejected them all. After her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, she is devastated and lonely. It is almost as if she is depressed, but then she meets homer Barron, a foreman from the n orth. They spend a lot of time together and the town certainly notices. Read MoreShort Story Comparison1241 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesScales 1! Katrina Scales David Miles ENC-1102 16 July 2015 A Yellow Rose It is likely that after reading short stories The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman and A Rose for Emily by William Faulkner, any sensible reader will feel disturbed in at least the slightest. Both texts contain neurotic women of unsound mind who have deathly obsessions. At first glance, these stories do not seem to have much in common; they have been written through opposite perspectives, one neglects to be chronologicalRead More William Faulkner Essay1215 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages William Faulkner nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;William Faulkner is one of Americas most talked about writers and his work should be included in any literary canon for several reasons. After reading a few of his short stories, it becomes clear that Faulkners works have uniqueness to them. One of the qualities that make William Faulkners writings different is his close connection with the South. Gwendolyn Charbnier states, Besides the sociological factors that influence Faulkners work, biographicalRead MoreA Rose For Emily Symbolism Analysis1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessince it is the setting that outlines the plot development and influences the heroesÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions and general characteristics. In FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ and HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Hills Like White Elephants,Ã¢â¬ the setting is raised to the symbolic level. When the outside portrayal does not correspond to what is happening inside the character, it adds a psychological perspective to the plotÃ¢â¬â¢s analysi s. In FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s story, there is much information about the Griersons who have been at the top tier of societyRead MoreA Rose for Emily Psychoanalysis2422 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesanalysis. The interpretation of these elements, the making of meaning out of them, then depends on the context or method of interpretation we apply to them. Thus we can easily see why a signifying elementlike the figure of the father in Faulkners A Rose for Emily-has so many different meanings. Do we interpret him historically as a metaphor of Southern manhood? Psychologically as the cause of Emilys neurosis? In a feminist context as a symbol of the patriarchal repression of freedom and desire? Do anyRead MoreAnalysis Of James Baldwin s The Sonny s Blue Reading 1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespoverty when he lived in Harlem. For instance in the sonnyÃ¢â¬â¢s blue reading, the narrator mentioned he lived in a housing project and he said Ã¢â¬Å"I had the feeling that I was simply bringing him back into the danger he had almost died trying to escapeÃ¢â¬ . The narrator and his bother sonny knew how dangerous, poor, and neglect neighbor they were living. Even sonny said Ã¢â¬Å"I wanted to leave Harlem so bad was to get away from drugsÃ¢â¬ . In the reading, he also focused in the importance of brothers boundaries. The
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Call for Quality Daycare for All Children. Daycare has turn into a debate for the reason there are two sides to every debate and then there is what some would call the middle. There are advantages and disadvantages when it comes to leaving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s child in the care of another individual and many aspects play an acting role and the list is unlimited when comes to what all it involves. Although a very large number of parents require the assistances of childcare facilitiesÃ¢â¬â¢, because of the economy, or financial needs that only their jobs can fulfill, single parents and more individuals going back to college, or the career goals that one as sat for themselves not only for the sake of their children, but a better future for the family. For the most part child psychiatrists consider the ideal growing environment for an infant in the home with the family. For The vernacular used and the amount of time-spent teaching, the child day-to-day skills are more essential and the setting comes into play as well. The difficult is deciding on the right caregiver, a good addition for the parents and the child, it is very difficult, and the outcomes of making the wrong choice can be very damaging to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality and personality growth. Many aspects like culture, education and particularly by the income may at time over right the right daycare for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s child. The financial availability, or unavailability plays the most valuable role in the option to choose the childcareShow MoreRelatedPets As Children : Pets982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPets As Children We sleep with them, dress them up, talk to them, and plan our daily lives around them: pets. Nowadays, people are treating their pets as if they were their own children. They may even treat them better than their actual family members. This most commonly occurs with people who have a dog. It may be common among other types of pet owners, as well, but I am going to just talk about dog owners and what they do that makes it seem as thought their dogs are actually their children. CouplesRead MoreThe Center s Purpose And Its Philosophy On The Care Of Our Children1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Center s purpose and its philosophy on the care of our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s 7.702.41 A The United Nation Daycare Center provide the developmentally appropriate balance of learning and play to prepare children for kindergarten and beyond. Our skilled, dedicated teachers and staff create a safe, nurturing environment. Our curriculum creates a strong educational foundation and helps build social skills, community awareness and self-confidence. We involve parents to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s classroom to experiencesRead MoreThe Cost of Childcare Essay1486 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChildcare or Ã¢â¬Å"daycareÃ¢â¬ is one of the most commonly used resources among Americans in the United States. There are many options for childcare that parents could choose from. They have many choices for childcare, ranging from: in-home care, childcare facilities, after school or government-funded Head Start programs. . Ã¢â¬Å"Head Start is a federally funded governmental program with the explicit goal of preparing underprivileged children for primary educationÃ¢â¬ (Conley). This program is ano ther option forRead MoreEssay about The Cost of Childcare1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Childcare or Ã¢â¬Å"daycareÃ¢â¬ is one of the most commonly used resources among Americans in the United States. There are many options for childcare that parents could choose from. The cost of childcare has risen dramatically over the past year, and no one really knows who to blame for it. The average cost for one child in a childcare facility ranges from $100-$350 a week. The government offers families subsidies for childcare, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s only if your income is low. What about the hard working middle classRead MoreEssay on The Benefits of High Quality Child Care1849 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesmost efficient caregiver for their children. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also known that with daily responsibilities of caring for a child financially, parents partake in full-time and/or part-time employment. While needing to do so, many children attend daycare/preschool facilities. Granted, it is the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s re sponsibility to cautiously select where they decide to take their children. This is because parents know that while they are away for numerous hours of the day, their children are in the hands of another care providerRead MoreEssay on Sending Your Child to a Day Care Center3341 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagestheir tuition until her husband got a new job.Ã¢â¬ (Shellenbarger, 2000). Parents want to send their children to daycare even though it costs them a great deal of money. It is hard to tell if parents should send their children because of how expensive it is. Parents are even becoming stressed that the child day care centers are taking care of the parents as well as the children. There are many things to consider when deciding if you are going to send your child to day care or not. Read MoreAccountable Health Communities Essay859 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresearch shows how federal control health centers can improve the overall health of individuals. Also, it looks at how the overall health can be improved in children too. They compiled data from a registered clinic in the southern part of Ohio of pediatric patients that use the clinic as a primary care facility. The authors actually, used a model to call the SDH screening to measure the risk of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health. The model actually showed that implementing a screening can help at risk patients understandRead MoreWork Life Balance : An Important Aspect Of Life978 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesspent at work start to outweigh the benefit of having the job? If a husband or wife is working so much that they hardly see his or her family, the benefit to the career may not be felt. For a family to succeed it must have time to spend together, quality time. While money is an important driver in deciding a career direction it may also be necessary to negotiate a work-life balance too. This could make a tremendous difference in the amount of time one could spend with his or her family and still maintainRead MoreEarly Childhood Education Is The Potential For Many Significant Outcomes1460 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinto place. Some feel that children who start kindergarten without previously attended preschool sometimes lack certain skills such as social and communication skills and an inability to follow routines. There were also studies done that found attending preschool could help to close the achievement gap in the grade school years. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s first few years of life are most important, and they absorb the most during those years. By providing universal preschool, all children would be benefiting, especiallyRead MoreThe Effects of Poverty on Education1061 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespoverty line anyway? According to the 2011 US Census Bureau, it is a family of four (two adults and two children under 1 8) that earns less than $ 23,021 (U.S. Census Bureau). In 2011, nearly 46.2 million Americans were living in poverty (U.S. Census Bureau). So how does this affect our children? A child born into poverty will eventually attend a poor neighborhood daycare facility and kindergarten then move on to a poor school system. A poor school system will affect their
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Friday, April 24, 2020
The Taming of the Shrew In Shakespeare's comedy, "The Taming of the Shrew," one of the main ways that the theme is shown is by mistaken identity. The main theme of this play is that what a person is really like is more important than how they appear to be. This is shown by Petruchio's relationship with Katherine; the changing roles of Tranio, Lucentio, and Hortensio; and the true characters of Bianca and Katherine. All three of these situations help to enrich the theme. The first predicament that supports the theme is Petruchio's relationship with Katherine. When we first meet Petruchio, he is only after the money of Katherine, and accepts her harshness as simply a goal he must overcome. He is mistaken for a person who is only after money, not love at all. Yet when he meets Kate, he begins to fall for her. While he still argues and attempts to train her, it is for his own benefit. He wants her to be less harsh so she can fall in love with him. Petruchio ends up truly caring for and loving Kate, despite the front he puts up having his true identity revealed. As a result of this Katherine, whom we thought would never love anyone, at the end of the story is the only wife who comes when she is beckoned. The other wives only make up excuses. This shows how Kate has a mistaken identity becuase she appears rude and insolent. This situation is one of the ways Shakespeare uses mistaken identity to display theme. Another part of the theme is that when a person changes outfit's and roles, their personalities and attitudes stary the same. The first and most prominent role change is the one between Lucentio and Tranio. Lucentio, in order to marry Bianca, exchanges outfits with his servant Tranio in order to become a tutor for Bianca. Although Tranio appears to be a nobleman, he is really just a simple servant. His identity did not change despite the fact that his outfit did. In the same fashion, Lucentio becomes Cambio, the tutor. His true self is as a nobleman, but due to his love of Bianca, he tries to change himself. Just like Tranio, despite the change of outfit, Lucentio's real personality is not altered. Hencefoth came Hortensio, the least successful prenteder. He too becomes a tutor for Bianca, but is rejected by her. Before the changing of clothes, Hortensio is in competition with Lucentio for Bianca, and still is despite the change in clothing. What Shakespeare is trying to convey is that although you can change your clothes, you can't change the person who wears them. The most effective way Shakespeare demonstrates this theme is through Bianca and Kate. On the outside, Kate appears harsh, cruel and frightening to all of the characters. Even her father is scared of her monsterous temper, begging anyone to marry her. Yet as her relationship with Petruchio grows, her true identitiy emerges. She becomes much less of a shrew, her mistaken identity, and begins to become a benevolent person, her true identity. This overcomes her other self and shines through. Despite all of her outward appearances, she is truly a good person in her heart. Yet Bianca's scenario is different . She is perceived as a sweet and gentle person, a false precept, devoting herself to her studies and never wanting anything else out of life. Yet once she achieves her goal, to be married, her true self appears. She becomes quarralsome and apathetic, not coming at the call of Lucentio or accusing him of simply hunting her, not at all caring for her. She becomes almost what her sister was. Furthermore, to find out what Kate and Bianca are really like is the conflict of the play. On one level, it is Petruchio's conflict to tame Kate or live with a shrew the rest of his life. To tame Kate is also to reveal her actual personality. With Lucentio, he is after Bianca, and to fall head over heels in love with her. To fall in love with someone can also be to find out about them and see who they really are in their
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Figueroa Surname Meaning and Origin The Spanish surname Figueroa is a habitational name from any one of several small towns in Galicia, Spain, named Figueroa, from a derivative of figueira, meaning fig tree. Figueroa is the 59th most common Spanish surname. Alternate Surname Spellings: Figuero, Figuera, Figarola, Higueras, Higuero, Higueroa, De Figueroa, Figueres Surname Origin: Spanish Where Do People With the Figueroa Surname Live? While the Figueroa surname originated in Galicia near the border of Spain and Portugal, according toÃ ForebearsÃ it is no longer as prevalent in that region as it is in many other Spanish-speaking countries. The Figueroa last name ranks 18th in Puerto Rico, 38th in Chile, 47th in Guatemala, 56th in El Salvador, 64th in Argentina, 68th in Honduras, 99th in Venezuela, 105th in Peru and 111th in Mexico. Within Spain, Figueroa is still most prevalent in Galicia, according to WorldNames PublicProfiler.Ã In the United States, the Figueroa surname is found in greatest numbers in the states of Florida, Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and New York. Famous People With the Figueroa Surname Francisco de Figueroa - 16th century Spanish poetPedro JosÃ ©Ã Figueroa - Colombian portrait painterColeÃ Figueroa - MLB 2nd baseman for the Pittsburgh Pirates- Venezuelan television hostPedro de Castro y Figueroa - Spanish viceroy of New SpainJosÃ ©Ã Figueroa Alcorta - President of Argentina, 1906Ã¢â¬â1910FranciscoÃ AcuÃ ±a de Figueroa - Uruguayan poet and writerFernando Figueroa - President of El Salvador, 1907Ã¢â¬â1911 Genealogy Resources for the Surname Figueroa 100 Most Common Spanish SurnamesHave you ever wondered about your Spanish last name and how it came to be? This article describes common Spanish naming patterns and explores the meaning and origins of 100 common Spanish surnames. How to Research Hispanic HeritageLearn how to get started researchingÃ your Hispanic ancestors, including the basics of family tree research and country-specific organizations, genealogical records, and resources for Spain, Latin America, Mexico, Brazil, the Caribbean, and other Spanish speaking countries. Figueroa Family Crest - Its Not What You ThinkContrary to what you may hear, there is no such thing as a Figueroa family crest or coat of arms for the Figueroa surname.Ã Coats of arms are granted to individuals, not families, and may rightfully be used only by the uninterrupted male-line descendants of the person to whom the coat of arms was originally granted.Ã The Figueroa DNA Surname ProjectThe Figueroa Family Project seeks to find common heritage through sharing of information and DNA testing. Any variant spellings of the Figueroa surname are welcome to participate. Figueroa Family Genealogy ForumThis free message board is focused on the descendants of Figueroa ancestors around the world. Search past queries, or post a question of your own. FamilySearch - Figueroa GenealogyAccess over 1.2 million free historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Figueroa surname and its variations on this free genealogy website hosted by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Figueroa Surname Mailing ListThis free mailing list for researchers of the Figueroa surname and its variations includes subscription details and searchable archives of past messages. Hosted by RootsWeb. DistantCousin.com - Figueroa Genealogy Family HistoryExplore free databases and genealogy links for the last name Figueroa. The Figueroa Genealogy and Family Tree PageBrowse family trees and links to genealogical and historical records for individuals with the last name Figueroa from the website of Genealogy Today.References Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Dorward, David. Scottish Surnames. Collins Celtic (Pocket edition), 1998. Fucilla, Joseph. Our Italian Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 2003. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Reaney, P.H. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1997. Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The War Crimes of Iraqs Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was born on April 28th, 1937 in al-Awja, a suburb of the Sunni city of Tikrit. After a difficult childhood, during which he was abused by his stepfather and shuffled from home to home, he joined Iraqs Baath Party at the age of 20. In 1968, he assisted his cousin, General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, in the Baathist takeover of Iraq. By the mid-1970s, he had become Iraqs unofficial leader, a role that he officially took on following al-Bakrs (highly suspicious) death in 1979. Political Oppression Hussein openly idolized the former Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, a man notable as much for his paranoia-induced execution sprees as anything else. In July 1978, Hussein had his government issue a memorandum decreeing that anyone whose ideas came into conflict with those of the Baath Party leadership would be subject to summary execution. Most, but certainly not all, of Husseins targets were ethnic Kurds and Shiite Muslims. Ethnic Cleansing: The two dominant ethnicities of Iraq have traditionally been Arabs in south and central Iraq, and Kurds in the north and northeast, particularly along the Iranian border. Hussein long viewed ethnic Kurds as a long-term threat to Iraqs survival, and the oppression and extermination of the Kurds was one of his administrations highest priorities. Religious Persecution: The Baath Party was dominated by Sunni Muslims, who made up only about one-third of Iraqs general population; the other two-thirds was made up of Shiite Muslims, Shiism also happening to be the official religion of Iran. Throughout Husseins tenure, and especially during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), he saw the marginalization and eventual elimination of Shiism as a necessary goal in the Arabization process, by which Iraq would purge itself of all perceived Iranian influence. The Dujail Massacre of 1982: In July of 1982, several Shiite militants attempted to assassinate Saddam Hussein while he was riding through the city. Hussein responded by ordering the slaughter of some 148 residents, including dozens of children. This is the war crime with which Saddam Hussein was formally charged, and for which he was executed. The Barzani Clan Abductions of 1983: Masoud Barzani led the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), an ethnic Kurdish revolutionary group fighting Baathist oppression. After Barzani cast his lot with the Iranians in the Iran-Iraq War, Hussein had some 8,000 members of Barzanis clan, including hundreds of women and children, abducted. It is assumed that most were slaughtered; thousands have been discovered in mass graves in southern Iraq. The al-Anfal Campaign: The worst human rights abuses of Husseins tenure took place during the genocidal al-Anfal Campaign (1986-1989), in which Husseins administration called for the extermination of every living thinghuman or animalin certain regions of the Kurdish north. All told, some 182,000 peoplemen, women, and childrenwere slaughtered, many through use of chemical weapons. The Halabja poison gas massacre of 1988 alone killed over 5,000 people. Hussein later blamed the attacks on the Iranians, and the Reagan administration, which supported Iraq in the Iran-Iraq War, helped promote this cover story. The Campaign Against the Marsh Arabs: Hussein did not limit his genocide to identifiably Kurdish groups; he also targeted the predominantly Shiite Marsh Arabs of southeastern Iraq, the direct descendants of the ancient Mesopotamians. By destroying more than 95% of the regions marshes, he effectively depleted its food supply and destroyed the entire millennia-old culture, reducing the number of Marsh Arabs from 250,000 to approximately 30,000. It is unknown how much of this population drop can be attributed to direct starvation and how much to migration, but the human cost was unquestionably high. The Post-Uprising Massacres of 1991: In the aftermath of Operation Desert Storm, the United States encouraged Kurds and Shiites to rebel against Husseins regimethen withdrew and refused to support them, leaving an unknown number to be slaughtered. At one point, Husseins regime killed as many as 2,000 suspected Kurdish rebels every day. Some two million Kurds hazarded the dangerous trek through the mountains to Iran and Turkey, hundreds of thousands dying in the process. The Riddle of Saddam Hussein: Although most of Husseins large-scale atrocities took place during the 1980s and early 1990s, his tenure was also characterized by day-to-day atrocities that attracted less notice. Wartime rhetoric regarding Husseins rape rooms, death by torture, decisions to slaughter the children of political enemies, and the casual machine-gunning of peaceful protesters accurately reflected the day-to-day policies of Saddam Husseins regime. Hussein was no misunderstood despotic madman. He was a monster, a butcher, a brutal tyrant, a genocidal racist - he was all of this and more.But what this rhetoric does not reflect is that, until 1991, Saddam Hussein was allowed to commit his atrocities with the full support of the U.S. government. The specifics of the al-Anfal Campaign were no mystery to the Reagan administration, but the decision was made to support the genocidal Iraqi government over the pro-Soviet theocracy of Iran, even to the point of making ourselves complicit in crimes against humanity . A friend once told me this story: An Orthodox Jewish man was being hassled by his rabbi for violating kosher law, but had never been caught in the act. One day, he was sitting inside a deli. His rabbi had pulled up outside, and through the window he observed the man eating a ham sandwich. The next time they saw each other, the rabbi pointed this out. The man asked: You watched me the whole time? The rabbi answered: Yes. The man responded: Well, then, I was observing kosher, because I acted under rabbinical supervision.Saddam Hussein was unquestionably one of the most brutal dictators of the 20th century. History cannot even begin to record the full scale of his atrocities and the effect they had on those affected and the families of those affected. But his most horrific acts, including the al-Anfal genocide, were committed in full view of our government - the government that we present to the world as a shining beacon of human rights.Make no mistake: The ouster of Saddam Hussein was a victory for human rights, and if there is any silver lining to come from the brutal Iraq War, it is that Hussein is no longer slaughtering and torturing his own people. But we should fully recognize that every indictment, every epithet, every moral condemnation we issue against Saddam Hussein also indicts us. We should all be ashamed of the atrocities that were committed under our leaders noses, and with our leaders blessing.